CADDET: Promoting Energy Technologies

Many energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies have been documented in demonstration projects to be technically feasible and economically attractive. Examples include various heat recovery systems, high-efficiency motors and drives, geothermal heat pumps, and thermal storage systems. Widespread adoption of these technologies often is delayed because data about their successful performance do not reach potential users. Information about a range of these technologies is available from the international Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET).

CADDET was formed by the IEA in 1988 to collect and disseminate information on demonstration projects that have produced data on the successful economic and technical performance of energy-efficient end-use technologies. The center recognizes that tangible evidence of technical and economic acceptability produced by demonstration projects can effectively accelerate the replication of successful technologies. The ultimate goal of U.S. involvement in the CADDET program is to assist U.S. companies by promoting their energy-efficient technologies to potential new markets within and outside the United States.

In 1993, CADDET was expanded into two branches—CADDET Energy Efficiency and CADDET Renewable Energy. In the United States, involvement with the CADDET Energy Efficiency Annex is coordinated by ORNL for DOE. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, provides technical support for U.S. involvement in the CADDET Renewable Energy Annex.

Currently, 15 member countries participate in this IEA agreement on a cost- and task-shared basis. The CADDET Energy Efficiency Operating Agent in the Netherlands and the CADDET Renewables Operating Agent in England act as focal points for communications. Member countries have established "national teams" of experts to search for demonstrations of new energy-saving technologies that are suitable for replication in other parts of the world. The teams also assist with the distribution of CADDET information on demonstrated energy technologies to appropriate audiences. The U.S. National Team, led by ORNL, is made up of approximately 75 representatives from technical, professional, and trade organizations; private industry; utilities; and local, state, and federal agencies.

At the heart of the CADDET operation is a computerized register of information on more than 1600 energy technology demonstration projects. Each member country is responsible for preparing the register's database entries covering demonstrations in their countries. A majority of these entries focus on technologies for increasing the efficiency of energy use in buildings and industrial processes. Agriculture, transportation, utilities, and other end uses are also represented, but to a lesser degree. A total of 317 entries describe U.S. demonstration projects.

CADDET's 1658 demonstration projects are broken down by end-use sector.

CADDET also produces technical brochures, which provide expanded information on key technologies represented in the CADDET Register. Each brochure describes the technology being demonstrated, the setting, the cost of the project, the energy saved, and other findings concerning the operation of the technology. Each brochure also lists names of individuals who can be contacted for further information.

The most in-depth of the CADDET products are the analysis reports. These reports use experts from CADDET member countries to compare the technical and economic performance of a particular type of technology across a range of demonstrations. Fourteen analysis reports have been produced to date.

Finally, CADDET also produces quarterly newsletters, which are currently distributed to more than 10,000 subscribers worldwide. Each issue focuses on a specific technical topic and features international articles, news items, abstracts of recent publications, and meeting notices.

CADDET's mission has expanded beyond identifying and analyzing information about demonstrations of new energy-saving technologies. To disseminate more effectively the information it collects, CADDET has increased its use of marketing techniques to target audiences that would benefit most from the information. Also, it evaluates and documents the performance of the program. Each national team performs marketing and evaluation projects, such as subscriber surveys, exhibits at trade shows, and targeted mailings.

In addition, the United States has led the way in promoting CADDET via the Internet by making all U.S. Register entries available on the World Wide Web. During its first 9 months on the Web, the Register was accessed more than 1500 times. As a result of this success, CADDET information on the Internet will likely be expanded to include the entire Register database and the full text of selected technical brochures. The address of the U.S. CADDET Register on the Internet is:

An International Program on Heat Pump Technologies

Electric heat pumps are used to heat and cool buildings. Through improvements of the efficiency of this end-use technology, less fossil fuel will be burned, resulting in lower emissions of carbon dioxide. New heat pumps must also be designed to use refrigerants that do not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which are also greenhouse gases. Hence, the goal of an international heat pump program is the development and deployment of an energy-efficient, environmentally acceptable heat pump to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

In addition to supporting GREENTIE and CADDET, DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsors U.S. participation in the IEA Implementing Agreement for a program of research, development, demonstration, and promotion of heat pumping technologies. ORNL staff provide technical and administrative support to this IEA Heat Pump Program and chair the group of experts that compose the U.S. National Team. International collaboration and technology transfer are made possible by the volunteer efforts of each country's national team. The U.S. National Team has strong industry representation from organizations such as the Carrier Corporation, the Electric Power Research Institute , the Gas Research Institute, Inter-City Products, Lennox Industries, and the Trane Company.

Since 1978, the IEA Heat Pump Technologies Program has sponsored more than 20 "annexes," or collaborative projects, in which 16 countries have participated. The United States is the designated "operating agency" for two active annexes: Annex 18, Thermophysical Properties of the Environmentally Acceptable Refrigerants, and Annex 21, Global Environmental Benefits of Industrial Heat Pumps. Included in the products resulting from Annex 21 is a computer program to predict the market penetration, potential energy savings, and potential emissions reductions of industrial heat pumps. Annex 18 has brought together international properties experts who are collaborating to produce bulletins, a database of experimental work and literature, and research surveys to provide a reliable source of information on refrigerant properties.

In this comparison of the range of carbon dioxide
emissions from various heating systems (in kilograms
per megajoule), coal-fired boilers are the largest
emitters and diesel engine heat pumps are the smallest.

Annex 16, the Heat Pump Center (HPC), provides a means of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating technical, market, regulatory, and environmental information concerning heat pumps. Specifically, it publishes the quarterly journal IEA Heat Pump Center Newsletter, organizes workshops, provides an inquiry service, and conducts analysis studies on selected heat pump topics. Twenty-five countries recently submitted national position papers for an analysis report entitled "International Heat Pump Status and Policy Review." This report was prepared in close collaboration with the International Institute of Refrigeration and is the most comprehensive assessment of the global heat pump situation to date. Other recent multinational analyses have focused on heat pump water heaters and the impact of heat pumps on global climate change.

The HPC's quarterly journal is distributed to more than 800 readers in the United States and to more than 4000 readers worldwide. The March 1995 issue focused on replacements for CFCs and HCFCs, with two articles and the editorial written by U.S. authors. The articles were provided by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and the Trane Company, and the editorial was submitted by the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration. Proceedings of two recent HPC co-sponsored international workshops are also now available: "Consequences of (H)CFC Replacement in HVAC Applications" and "Utilities Perspectives on Heat Pumps for Retrofit and New Applications in Buildings."

Goals of this IEA program include dissemination and promotion of collaborative Heat Pump Program annex results to facilitate the rapid development and deployment of environmentally friendly heat pumps.


For more information about the international activities of GREENTIE, CADDET, and the Heat Pump Technologies Program, contact the following individuals:

Marilyn Brown
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program
Building 4500-N, MS 6186
Phone: (423) 574-5204
Fax: (423) 576-7572

Julia Kelley
Information Management Services
Building 2506, MS 6302
Phone: (423) 574-6966
Fax: (423) 574-9672

Melissa Voss
Energy Division
Building 3147, MS 6070
Phone: (423) 574-1013
Fax: (423) 574-9338


World Energy Council (WEC) Commission,
Energy for Tomorrow's World,
St. Martin's Press, Inc., New York, 1993.

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