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Monday, August 05

Developmnet of an LED-Based Sensor for Simultaneous Measurements of CO and CO2 from Combustion Exhausts

, ,
National Transportation Research Center
9:00 AM — 10:00 AM, National Transportation Research Center, Conference Room L-115
Contact: Pam Olszewski (, 856.946.1317


Liquid fuel consumption is projected to increase by 46% from 2008 to 2035, with the transportation sector accounting for 82% of that increase [1]. Sensors that are capable of detecting exhaust species can assist in the development of adaptive engines that can adjust to changes in fuel characteristics. Additionally, greater efficiencies can be realized by reducing the cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle combustion variations that are detectable by the exhaust gases. These variations are further amplified at higher exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions utilized in advanced engine systems [2, 3]. Time-resolved knowledge of CO and CO2 concentration of exhaust will aid in improving the combustion strategies and efficiency. The methods for measuring these gases have been extensively developed using lasers [4-6], however, lasers are expensive, bulky, and can be dangerous. In this paper, we describe the development of a mid-infra-red (MIR) (LED)-based absorption spectroscopy to measure global concentrations of CO2 and CO from internal combustion engines. Recent developments in the infra-red LED sources [7] at 3.8, 4.2 and 4.7 µm which are at the transitions of H2O, CO and CO2 motivates this effort. The probe LEDs centered at either 4.2 µm or 4.7 µm overlap the CO2 and CO absorption features in the region [8]. The reference LED, centered at 3.8 µm, serves as the reference signal that does not coincide with either absorption features or known interference species. Beer's law will be utilized to get actual CO2 and CO concentrations using these three wavelengths and a single detector after Fourier transform. Validation tests with the developed sensor are currently in progress using shock tubes, absorption cells, and engines.

[1] USEIA. U. S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook. http://wwweiagov/forecasts/ieo/pdf/0484(2011)pdf 2011.

[2] Partridge WP, Geckler S, Connatser M, Yoo J, Parks J, Hetisimer C, et al. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D. Annual Progress Report, ORNL 2011.

[3] Partridge WP, Geckler S, Yoo J, Perfetto A, Parks J, Connatser M, et al. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D. Annual Progress Report, ORNL 2012.

[4] Ren W, Farooq A, Davidson DF, Hanson RK. CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 µm. Appl Phys B 2012;107:849.

[5] Vanderover J, Oehlschlaeger MA. Appl Phys B 2010;99:353.

[6] Barron-Jimenez R, Caton JA, Anderson TN, Lucht RP, Walther T, Roy S, et al. Application of a difference-frequency-mixing based diode-laser sensor for carbon monoxide detection in the 4.4–4.8 µm spectral region. Applied Physics B 2006;85:185.

[7] http://wwwboseleccom/products/irledhtml.

[8] HITRAN. High-resolution transmission molecular absorption database. wwwcfaharvardedu/hitran/.