DOE EERE Research Reports

Electrically-Driven Heat Pumps

ACES: Annual Cycle Energy System

Analytical Studies

ACES systems use an electric heat pump to extract heat from water in a storage tank to form ice. The system can be used with a matrix of pipes submerged in the tank of water to form "ice logs" or it can use a more conventional approach to making ice by circulating water over the outside of the evaporator tubes and harvesting the ice to form shaved or cracked ice in the storage tank.

Analytical studies of ACES systems included engineering and economic evaluations.

Links to Publications:
  1. The Annual Cycle Energy System: Initial Investigations
  2. Assessment of the Load Management Potential of the Annual Cycle Energy System
  3. Design Report for the ACES Demonstration House
  4. Development of Concepts for Low-Cost Energy Storage Assemblies for Annual Cycle Energy System Applications
  5. Economic Evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES): Final Report
    1. Vol. I - Executive Summary
    2. Vol. II - Detailed Results
    3. Vol. III - Appendices
  6. Investigation of Alternate Types of Water Storage Components to be Utilized in Conjunction with the ACES System
  7. MAD: A Computer Program for ACES Design Using Monthly Thermal Loads
  8. Performance and Economics of the ACES and Alternative Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems in 115 U.S. Cities
  9. Performance and Economics of Eight Alternative Systems for Residential Heating, Cooling, and Water Heating in 115 U.S. Cities
  10. Research Program on the Economic Feasibility and Commercialization Potential of ACES
  11. Summary of the Annual Cycle Energy System Workshop Held October 29-30, 1975 at Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  12. Theory and Design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for Residences

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