DOE EERE Research Reports

Electrically-Driven Heat Pumps

ACES: Annual Cycle Energy System

Demonstration Projects

AceS systems use an electric heat pump to extract heat from water in a storage tank to form ice. The system can be used with a matrix of pipes submerged in the tank of water to form "ice logs" or it can use a more conventional approach to making ice by circulating water over the outside of the evaporator tubes and harvesting the ice to form shaved or cracked ice in the storage tank.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory designed and constructed an ACES at a demonstration site outside of Knoxville, Tennessee. The site consisted of two nearly identical houses, one heated with resistance heat and cooled with a central air conditioner and the other heated and cooled with an ACES system. The performance of the ACES system was carefully monitored and compared to the conventional house.

Links to Publications:
  1. Performance Report for the ACES Demonstration House August 1976 Through August 1977
  2. ACES Demonstration: Construction, Startup, and Performance Report
  3. Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) Performance Report, November 1977 Through September 1978
  4. ACES 1979 Capabilities and Potential
  5. Data Collection and Processing for the ACES
  6. ACES: Final Performance Report December 1, 1978 through September 15, 1980
  7. ACES Tests at the TECH Site: 1981
  8. Annual Cycle Energy System Performance and National Economic Comparisons with Competitive Residential HVAC Systems
  9. New Modes of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning: The Annual Cycle Energy System

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