DOE EERE Research Reports

Electrically-Driven Heat Pumps

ACES: Annual Cycle Energy Systems

The Annual Cycle Energy System or "ACES" is that integrates an ice-maker heat pump, an ice storage tank, and a solar collector to form a very high efficiency heating and cooling system. During the winter months, the heat pump is operated to extract heat from the storage tank much as an air-to-air heat pump extracts energy from the ambient air to heat a building. During the process, either ice logs or an ice slurry is formed which can be used to provide some or all of the building space cooling requirements during the summer. The solar panel provides a source of "free" energy to melt ice in the tank if the heating load is such that there is insufficient storage capacity.

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