DOE EERE Research Reports

Electrically-Driven Heat Pumps

Fluids Development

Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures

Non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures are composed of two or more refrigerants that have different boiling points. When used in a refrigeration cycle evaporation and condensation occur at a constant pressure but unlike pure refrigerants, across temperature differences. Theoretically heat transfer can occur more efficiently by matching temperature glides between fluid streams and overall system efficiency can be improved. Research projects were conducted on (1) fluid pairs, (2) heat transfer coefficients, and (3) applications to consumer products.

Links to Publications:
  1. Alternative Refrigerants and Refrigeration Cycles for Domestic Refrigerators
  2. Compressor Calorimeter Performance of Refrigerant Blends - Comparative Methods and Results for a Refrigerator/Freezer
  3. Cycle Performance Testing of Nonazeotropic Mixtures of HFC-143a/HCFC-124 and HFC-32/HCFC-124 with Enhanced Surface Heat Exchangers
  4. Energy Characteristics of a Two-Evaporator Refrigerator Using a Refrigerant Mixture
  5. An Evaluation of a Two-Evaporator Refrigerator-Freezer Using Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures
  6. An Experimental Evaluation of Two Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures in a Water-to-Water, Breadboard Heat Pump
  7. Experimental Study of an R-407C Drop-In Test on an Off-the-Shelf Air Conditioner with a Counter-Cross-Flow Evaporator
  8. Flow Boiling Enhancement of R-22 and a Nonazeotropic Mixture of R-143a and R-124 Using Perforated Foils
  9. Flow Regimes of Refrigerant Mixtures Condensing Inside Tubes
  10. Heat Exchanger Analysis for Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures
  11. IEA Study of Working Fluid Mixtures and High Temperature Working Fluids for Compressor Driven Systems Final Report
  12. Improving the Efficiency of Refrigerators and Heat Pumps by Using a Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixture
  13. Improving the Energy Effectiveness of Domestic Refrigerators by the Application of Refrigerant Mixtures
  14. An Initial Laboratory Evaluation of a Single Solution Circuit Cycle for Use with Nonazeotropic Refrigerants
  15. Intracycle Evaporative Cooling in a Vapor Compression Cycle
  16. Influence of HX Size and Augmentation on Performance Potential of Mixtures in Air-to-Air Heat Pumps
  17. Internal Performance of a Refrigerant Mixture in a Two-Evaporator Refrigerator
  18. Laboratory Evaluation of an Ozone-Safe Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixture in a Lorenz-Meutzner Refrigerator/Freezer Design
  19. Laboratory Testing of a Heat Pump System Using an R13B1/R152a Refrigerant Mixture
  20. Literature Survey of Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques in Refrigeration Applications
  21. Measurements of Heat-Transfer Coefficients of Nonazeoptropic Refrigerant Mixtures Condensing Inside Horizontal Tubes
  22. Performance and Simulation of Once-Through and Separating Cylces Using Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures
  23. The Performance of a Conventional Residential Sized Heat Pump Operating with a Nonazeotropic Binary Refrigerant Mixture
  24. Selection of Ozone-Safe, Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures for Capacity Modulation in Residential Heat Pumps
  25. Thermodynamic Calculations for Mixtures of Environmentally-Safe Refrigerants Using the Lee-Kesler-Plöcker Equation of State
  26. The Simulation and Performance of a System Using an R-12/R-114 Refrigerant Mixture

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