DOE EERE Research Reports

Electrically-Driven Heat Pumps

Geothermal Heat Pumps

Water Source Heat Pumps

Geothermal heat pumps use a water-source heat pump with a ground coil, either vertical or horizontal, circulating either water or a brine solution to reject or absorb heat from the ground. Various studies have been performed to evaluate the operation and effectiveness of water source heat pumps. These include laboratory hardware testing, monitoring residentail installations of ground-water source heat pumps in Pennsylvania, and in quantifying ground-water resources throughout the United States.

Links to Publications:
  1. An Experimental Evaluation of Two Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures in a Water-to-Water, Breadboard Heat Pump
  2. Fresh Air Moisture Control with a Water-Source Heat Pump and Enthalpy Recovery System
  3. Ground-Water Heat Pumps: An Examination of Hydrogeologic, Environmental, Legal, and Economic Factors Affecting Their Use
    1. Executive Summary
    2. Volume 1: Main Text and Appendices A, B, C
    3. Volume 2: Appendix D - State Hydrogeologic Descriptions and Maps
  4. Laboratory Test of a Residential Low-Temperature Water Source Heat Pump
    1. CONF Report (47 pages)
    2. ASHRAE Paper (13 pages)
  5. Monitoring of Residential Groundwater-Source Heat Pumps in the Northeast: Final Report
  6. Survey of Water-Source Heat Pump System Configurations in Current Practice
  7. A Water-to-Water Heat Pump Using Hydrocarbon and Hydrofluorocarbon Zeotropic Mixtures with and Without an Internal Heat Exchanger

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