DOE EERE Research Reports

Power Systems

Reactive Power

Ancillary Services Provided from DER
December 2005

J. B. Campbell
T. J. King
B. Ozpineci
D. T. Rizy
L. M. Tolbert
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831

Y. Xu
X. Yu
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee

Abstract: The nationís electric transmission and distribution (T&D) systems are aging, are stressed with heavy power flows and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Distributed energy resources (DER) can alleviate the burden on T&D systems by providing electric power at or near the site of the user/owner while providing greater efficiency and some cost benefits for the owner. A technology review of commercially available DER, such as microturbines and internal combustion engines (ICEs), to provide ancillary services is presented. The possibility of using DER to provide 10 different ancillary services was investigated including: voltage control, regulation, load following, spinning reserve, supplemental reserve (nonspinning), backup supply, harmonic compensation, network stability, seamless transfer, and peak shaving. An assessment of the present status of marketed DER technology with respect to how versatile the designs are for potentially providing these different ancillary services based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider is given. The review relates to DER sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. A key aspect is the potential offered by power electronics (PE). PE offers significant potential to improve the local voltage regulation of the distribution system that will benefit both the utility and the customer-owned DER source. Basically, power electronics for DER are in their infancy. Power electronics could be designed to incorporate voltage and frequency conditioning for the utility. Also, various controls could be built into the power electronics so a DER system could respond to special events or coordinate its operation with other DER sources on the distribution system.

Keywords: electric power, power transmission, power distribution, ancillary service, DER, DG


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