Archive Site Provided for Historical Purposes
An electronic version of the exhibit created by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the BER 50th Anniversary Symposium held on May 21-22, 1997, at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C.
For the past half-century, the U.S. Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program has crossed traditional research boundaries to seek revolutionary solutions in the areas of health, molecular nuclear medicine, genomics, global environmental change, and bioremediation. Communicating the research that emerges from these areas is a critical component to expanding the base of scientific knowledge to better serve science and society.
Sharing scientific results requires the use of various channels of communication:
List of Contributors to the Communicating Science Exhibit
Exhibit developed by the Human Genome Management Information System (HGMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with materials provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory of Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine.
Exceptional Service Awards—At a symposium held May 21-22, 1997, at the National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER; formerly ffice of Health and Environmental Research, OHER) celebrated the legacy and promise of 50 years of achievements. On the last day of the ymposium, 13 individuals were presented with Exceptional Service Awards as exemplars of the quality of effort and diversity of issues, disciplines, and institutional sectors encompassed by OBER's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program. The awardees and their achievements are honored in this booklet.
METHODOLOGY: For the "Communicating Science" exhibit, each national laboratory contributed a short, selected list of seminal, influential, and heavily cited journal articles resulting from BER-funded research at that laboratory. The compilation below offers examples of the BER Program's depth, range, and influence in many fields of science. It is not possible to list all articles generated by the national laboratories during the years covered. HGMIS thanks the laboratories for their hard work and timely input to this bibliography. Organized by year, the bibliography lists the article title, authors, journal where the article first appeared, and contributing laboratory. Depending on space and available information, some commentary provided by the respective laboratories is included.
1997: Development of the Alumina-Based Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 Generator and Use of Rhenium-188-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Treatment by F.F. Knapp, Jr., A.L. Beets, S. Guhlke, P.O. Zamora, H. Bender, H. Palmedo, and H. Biersack, J. Anticancer Research 17:1783. This paper describes the rationale for ORNL development of the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator which has a useful shelf-life of several months and provides the rhenium-188 therapeutic radioisotope on a demand basis. In addition, current clinical trials evaluating the use of rhenium-188-labeled agents for palliative treatment of bone pain from tumor metastasis and therapy of primary tumors are also discussed. (ORNL)
1996: Confirmation of Iron Limitation of Phytoplankton Photosynthesis in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean by M.J. Behrenfeld, A.J. Bale, Z.S. Kolber, J. Aiken, and P.G. Falkowski, Nature 383:508. Cover article of October 10, 1996, issue. (BNL)
1996: Analysis of Lung Tumor Risk in Rats Exposed to Radon by E.S. Gilbert, F.T. Cross, and G.E. Dagle, Radiat. Res.121:28. PNNL was the first to duplicate in experimental animals the lung cancer that had been observed in hard rock and uranium miners in Europe and the United States since the early part of the century. This work allowed studies by Cross at PNNL that defined many parameters of radon exposure related to induction of lung cancer. (PNNL)
1996: Microbes Deep Inside the Earth by J.K. Fredrickson and T.C. Onstott, Sci. Am. 275:68. This article was identified on the journal's cover and discussed in the Editor's column. The article summarizes results of the highly multidisciplinary DOE-OHER Subsurface Science Program to discover and define the origins of microorganisms deep within the earth. (PNNL)
1996: Exploring the Allowed Sequence Space of a Membrane Protein by J. Wen, X. Chen, and J.U. Bowie, Nat. Struct. Biol. 3:141. (UCLA-DOE)
1996: Clastogenic Effects of Defined Numbers of 3.2 MeV Alpha Particles on Individual CHO-K1 Cells by J.M. Nelson, A.L. Brooks, N.F. Metting, M.A. Khan, R.L. Buschbom, A. Duncan, R. Miick, and L.A. Braby, Radiat. Res. 145:568. This paper on the Alpha Particle Microbeam describes a unique experimental procedure using an accelerator for studying the response of living cells to radiation resulting from single alpha particle traversals through their nucleii. Radiation injury to cells from such events is expected to occur as a result of exposure to environmental radon gas or other sources of very low-level radiation. (PNNL)
1995: An Integrated Metric Physical Map of Human Chromosome 19 by L.K. Ashworth, M.A. Batzer, B. Brandriff, E. Branscomb, P. de Jong, E. Garcia, J.A. Garnes, L.A. Gordon, J.E. Lamerdin, G. Lennon, H. Mohrenweiser, A.S. Olsen, T. Slezak, and A.V. Carrano, Nat. Genet. 11:422. This is the first physical map to use a metric scale for positioning genes and other markers. (LLNL)
1995: Lithoautotrophic Microbial Ecosystems in Deep Basalt Aquifers by T.O. Stevens and J.P.McKinley, Science 270:450. This article described a newly discovered microbial ecosystem, which may have served as a first life form on earth and perhaps even in extraterrestrial bodies. (PNNL)
1995: Leaf and Canopy Responses to Elevated CO2 in a Pine Forest Under Free-Air CO2 Enrichment by D.S. Ellsworth, R. Oren, C. Huang, N. Phillips, and G.R. Hendrey, Oecologia 104:139. (BNL)
1995: Portable Blood Irradiator by F.P. Hungate, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 60:359. This paper describes the development of the first successful portable irradiator for reducing the number of lymphocytes in the blood of organ transplant patients, thereby decreasing the transplanted tissue's risk of rejection. (PNNL)
1995: H2: Lifting the Molecular Cloud by P.M. Dehmer, Phys. World 8:27. Dehmer's article was the cover story of that issue. (ANL)
1995: Cardiac Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography with Iodine-123-Labeled Fatty Acids: Evaluation of Myocardial Viability with BMIPP by F.F. Knapp, Jr., P. Franken, and J. Kropp, J. of Nucl. Med. 36:1022. This classic paper reviews the ORNL development of the BMIPP cardiac imaging and its introduction into clinical use for the evaluation of the degree of reversible damage to the heart muscle after a heart attack. The availability of such an agent is important for therapeutic planning. (ORNL)
1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic Background and Design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed by G.M. Stokes and S.E. Schwartz, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75:1201. The ARM Program is a highly collaborative effort among several laboratories. (ANL, BNL, and PNNL)
1994: Alterations of Single Molecule Fluorescence Lifetimes in Near-Field Optical Microscopy by W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, Science 265:364. (LANL)
1994: Induction of Differentiation in Human Promyelocytic HL-60 Leukemia Cells Activates p21, WAF1/CIP1, Expression in the Absence of p53 by H. Jiang, J. Lin, Z. Su, F.R. Collart, E. Huberman, and P.B. Fisher, Oncogene 9:3397. This paper describes induction of the p21 protein in differentiating cells, which is independent of the p53 gene. Nearly 100 citations. (ANL)
1992: Linkage of Atherogenic Lipoprotein Phenotype to the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Locus on the Short Arm of Chromosome 19 by P.M. Nishina, J.P. Johnson, J.K. Nagert, and R.M. Krauss, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 89:708. 77 citations. (LBNL)
1992: An Unstable Triplet Repeat in a Gene Related to Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy by Y.H. Fu, A. Pizzuti, R.G. Feenwick, J. King, S. Rajnarayan, P.W. Dunne, J. Dubel, G. Nasser, T. Ashizawa, P. de Jong, B. Wieringa, R. Korneluk, M.B. Perryman, H.F. Epstein and C.T. Caskey, Science 255:1256. The myotonic dystrophy gene was discovered by an international team of collaborators including members of the LLNL Human Genome Center. Several papers and a diagnostic tool for the disease resulted from this effort. 332 citations. (LLNL)
1992: Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment: Development, Progress, Results by G.R. Hendrey, K.F. Lewin, and J. Nagy, Vegetatio 104-105:17-31. (BNL)
1992: Biodegradation of Metal Citrate Complexes and the Implications for Toxic Metal Mobility by A.J. Francis, C.J. Dodge, and J.B. Gillow, Nature 356:140. (BNL)
1991: Simultaneous Determination of Refractive Index and Density of an Evaporating Aqueous Solution Droplet by I.N. Tang and H.R. Munkelwitz, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 15:201. (BNL)
1991: A Method to Identify Protein Sequences that Fold into a Known Three-Dimensional Structure by J.U. Bowie, R. Lüthy, and D. Eisenberg, Science 253:164. (UCLA-DOE)
1991: Designing Environmental Field Studies by L.L. Eberhardt and J. M. Thomas, Environ. Monogr. Symp. 61:53.This paper describes new techniques for designing environmental studies and offers a new statistical concept, called superpopulation, applicable to ecological studies. It has become a classic in design of community and ecosystem studies. (PNNL)
1990: Detection of Single Fluorescent Molecules by E.B. Shera, N.K. Seitzinger, L.M. Davis, R.A. Keller, and S.A. Soper, Chem. Phys. Lett. 174:553. (LANL)
1990: Modulation of Gene Expression in Syrian Hamster Embryo Cells Following Ionizing Radiation by G.E. Woloschak, C. Chang-Liu, P.S. Jones, and C.A. Jones, Cancer Res. 50:339. This paper, cited over 100 times, describes the modulation of expression of specific genes following low doses of radiation. (ANL)
1989: A General Method for Site-Specific Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins by C.J. Noren, S.J. Anthony-Cahill, M.C. Griffith, and P.G. Schultz, Science 244:182. 145 citations. (LBNL)
1989: Behavior of Technetium in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environs: A Symposium by R.E. Wildung, G.M. Desmet, D.A. Cataldo, and S.G. Weiss, Eds., Health Phys. Vol. 57, Special Issue. Earlier publications and this volume initiated major new studies worldwide on the behavior and effects of this important long-lived radionuclide. (PNNL)
1987: Evidence for Increased Somatic Cell Mutations at the Glycophorin A Locus in Atomic Bomb Survivors by R.G. Langlois, W.L. Bigbee, S.K. Kyoizumi, N. Nakamura, M.A. Bean, M. Akiyama, and R.H. Jensen, Science 236:445. This article addresses the application of biological dosimetry to a critical population. (LLNL)
1986: Cytogenetic Analysis Using Quantitative, High-Sensitivity, Fluorescence Hybridization by D. Pinkel, T. Straume, and J.W. Gray, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 83:2934. This paper is the basis for a U.C. patent and an entire new class of biological reagents for research called chromosome paints. 938 citations. (LLNL)
1986: Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Major Ions in a Forest by S.E. Lindberg, G. Lovett, D. Richter, and D. Johnson, Science. In 1995, it was recognized by two magazines, Science Watch and Current Contents as one of the most widely cited papers published since 1981 on ecology and environmental sciences. (ORNL)
1985: Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry for High-Resolution, Mass-Resolved Spectra of Rare Isotopes, by C.M. Miller, R. Engleman, Jr., and R.A. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. B2:1503. (LANL)
1984: An Improved Procedure for High-Purity Gaseous Peroxyacyl Nitrate Production: Use of Heavy Lipid Solvents by J.S. Gaffney, R. Fajer, and G.I. Senum, Atmos. Environ. 18:215. (BNL and ANL)
1984: Comparison of Statistical Designs and Experimental Protocols Used to Evaluate Rain Acidity Effects on Field-Grown Soybeans by L.S. Evans, G.R. Hendrey, and K. Thompson, J. Air Pollut.Control Assn. 34:1107. (BNL)
1983: Flow Cytometric Measurement of Total DNA Content and Incorporated Bromodeoxyuridine by F. Dolbeare, H. Gratzner, M.G. Pallavicini, and J.W. Gray, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Biol. 80:5573. 616 citations. (LLNL)
1983: Biological Availability of Trace Metals: Chemical Estimation, Ecological and Health Implications by E.A. Jenne and R.E. Wildung, Eds., Sci.Total Environ., Vol. 27, Special Issue Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam. This publication is the first definitive synthesis of the role of biological availability of metals in defining ecological and health impacts. (PNNL)
1982: How Does the Extracellular Matrix Direct Gene Expression? by M.J. Bissell, H.G. Hall, and G. Parry, J. Theor. Biol. 99:31. 547 citations. (LBNL)
1981: Acid Rain and Gray Snow by G.R. Hendrey, Nat. Hist. 90(2):58. (BNL)
1981: Carcinogenesis Following Prenatal Exposure to Radiationby M. R. Sikov, Int. J. Biol. Res. Pregnancy, 2(4):159. Sikov has led the world in researching the effects of radionuclides on the embryo and fetus, dominating the literature in this field. (PNNL)
1980: Absorption of Actinide Elements from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Rats, Guinea Pigs, and Dogs by M.F. Sullivan, Health Phys. 38:159. This paper reports data extensively used in establishing limits on intake of radionuclides by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Sullivan's work has dominated the field worldwide. (PNNL)
1979: Induction of Terminal Differentiation in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells by Tumor-Promoting Agents by E. Huberman and M. F. Callaham, Proc. Nat. Acad. of Sci. USA 76:1293. This paper showed that phorbol esters at low doses can induce differentiation of cells, providing a tool in the study of cell growth control, differentiation, and malignancy. Over 500 citations. (ORNL, ANL)
1978: Two-Dimensional Analysis of Serum and Tissue Proteins: Multiple Isoelectric Focusing by N.G. Anderson and N.L.Anderson, Anal. Biochem. 85:331. This article describes a two-dimensional electrophoresis method used to separate and analyze the gel patterns of proteins in studies of disease states, cell differentiation, and the cellular effects of toxic chemicals. Over 500 citations. (ANL)
1977: Fluorination with F2. A Convenient Synthesis of 2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose by T. Ido, C-N. Wan, J.S. Fowler, and A.P. Wolf, J. Org. Chem, 42:2341. In terms of worldwide impact some of the most important articles ever published are those on F-18 FDG, such as this one. FDG had an immediate impact and was highlighted in magazine articles and books on PET scanner work. (BNL)
1977: Aerosol Growth Studies III. Ammonium Bisulfate Aerosols in a Moist Atmosphere by I.N. Tang and H.R. Munkelwitz, J. Aerosol Sci. 8:321. (BNL)
1974: Spheroid Chromatin Units (v Bodies) by A.L. and D.E. Olins, Science 183:330. 850 citations of this "Citation Classic." (ORNL)
1974: Plutonium: Biomedical Research by W.J. Bair and R.C. Thompson, Science 183:715. Featured in Science, this paper has been cited extensively and used in university courses in radiation biology. It covers work done at PNNL and elsewhere. (PNNL)
1973: Intracellular Plutonium: Removal by Liposome-Encapsulated Chelating Agent by Y-E. Rahman, M.W. Rosenthal, and E.A. Cerny, Science 180:300. This paper pioneered a new development in treating metal poisonings. It led to accepted methods of treating ingestion of radioactive elements and to novel experimental methods for targeting the delivery of drugs within liposomes and phospholipid prodrugs. (ANL)
1973: Structure of a Gamma-Type Bence-Jones Protein at 3.5-Angstrom Resolution by M. Schiffer, R.L. Girling, L. Rowland, K.R. Ely, and A.B. Edmundson, Biochem.12:4620. This paper reported the first determination of the crystal structure of an antibody protein fragment (Bence- Jones protein) produced as a result of the disease multiple myeloma. This information formed the basis for understanding antibody function, specificity, and diversity. Over 270 citations. (ANL)
1973: Trace Element Analysis with Semi-Conductor Detector X-Ray Spectrometer by R.D. Giauque, F.S. Goulding, J.M. Jaklevic, R.H. Pehl, Anal. Chem. 45:671. (LBNL)
1972: Oogenesis in Xenopus Iaevis (Daudin): Stages of Oocyte Development in Laboratory Maintained Animals by J. Dumont, J. Morph.136:153. A "Citation Classic" cited over 1130 times. (ORNL).
1971: Inelastic Collisions of Fast Charged Particles with Atoms and Molecules the Bethe Theory Revisited by M. Inokuti, Rev. Mod. Phys. 43:297. A "Citation Classic" recognized as the fourth-most-cited paper during the years 1973-1992. (ANL)
1970: Tables for Determining the Statistical Significance of Mutation Frequencies by M.A. Kastenbaum, Mutat. Res. 9:527. 450 citations. (ORNL)
1967: Use of Helical Wheels to Represent the Structures of Proteins and to Identify Segments with Helical Potential by M. Schiffer and A B. Edmundson, Biophys. J. 7:121. This description of helical wheel diagrams to describe protein structure has become a standard methodology in the study of proteins. Cited over 650 times. (ANL)
1967: Radiation and the Patterns of Nature by G.M. Woodwell, Science 156(3774):461. A heavily cited, historical article. (BNL)
1965: Electronic Separation of Biological Cells by Volume by M.J. Fulwyler, Science 150 (3698):910. (LANL)
1963: Kinetics of Water Loss from Cells at Subzero Temperatures and the Likelihood of Intercellular Freezing by P. Mazur, J. Gen. Physiol. 47:347. A "Citation Classic." (ORNL)
1960: The First Step in Photosynthesis: Evidence for Its Electronic Nature by W.A. Arnold and R.K. Clayton, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 46:769. (ORNL)
1959: The Y Chromosome as the Bearer of Male Determining Factors in the Mouse by W.J. Welshons and L.B. Russell, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 45:560. (ORNL)
1957: Plasma Losses by Fast Electrons in Thin Films by R.H. Ritchie, Phys. Rev. 106:874. A "Citation Classic" cited 430 times. (ORNL)
1956: On the Statistical Nature of Mortality, with Especial Reference to Chronic Radiation Mortality by G.A. Sacher, Radiology 67:250. This is one of the first articles dealing with mathematical treatment of lifespan and radiation injury from which definitive applications to interspecies extrapolation of radiation effects were developed. This paper continues to be cited today, more than 40 years after its publication. (ANL)
1951: X-Ray-Induced Mutations in Mice by W.L. Russell, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 16:327. 292 Citations. (ORNL)
1950: The Role of Lipids and Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis by J.W. Gofman, F. Lindgren, H. Elliot, H. W. Mantz, J. Hewitt, B. Strisower, and V. Herring, Science, (February 17th issue). Over 530 citations. (LBNL)
Even in this era of instant digital communication, there is no substitute for direct contact between the scientific community and the public. Opportunities have presented themselves at such scientific exhibits as "Diving Into the Gene Pool" held in 1995 at the Exploratorium in San Francisco and "Understanding Our Genetic Inheritance" at the Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, New Mexico, which opened in 1996.
Exploratorium (Photo Courtesy Exploratorium and photographer Amy Snyder)
Scientists must also communicate with each other. Conferences and workshops allow researchers a chance to develop relationships on both personal and professional levels. All the national laboratories have hosted conferences and workshops including the First International Workshop on Chromosome 5 (picture at right) held in 1990.
Newsletters and magazines play an important role in communicating science. Like journals, science newsletters provide important information about research and new resources that are not available in general interest publications. Also, newsletters are able to get information out in a more timely manner. Laboratory magazines take a "feature story" approach to science, making it more understandable to a wider readership that includes government, industry, academia, and citizens with the desire to learn more about science.
Follow the links below to learn more about the magazine or newsletter and view the full size graphic.
The Protein Data Bank at Brookhaven National Laboratory archives three-dimensional coordinates that can be used to produce structures such as the diphtheria toxin (butterfly) and the bactericidal-permeability increasing protein (elongated figure) proteins.
(Structure photos shown below are courtesy of the UCLA-DOE Laboratory of Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine).
Throughout the country, DOE OBER-funded facilities, technology and staff have been used by various government agencies. These agencies include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as well as many private-sector corporations. User facilities and the Work for Others (WFO) program communicate science through these collaborative efforts while advancing scientific and technical expertise in a cost-effective way. Over 100 agencies, corporations, and universities have joined DOE in participating in the WFO program.
One such highly collaborative program is the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, an atmospheric measurement and modeling project. ARM provides basic research information that will later be used by farmers, aviators, and weather forecasters. The ARM program exemplifies teamwork and the sharing of expertise of 10 national laboratories, 18 universities, 11 government agencies, 4 foreign participants, and 3 private companies. Shown at the left, a weather observation balloon is launched from the Southern Great Plains test site located near the Kansas-Oklahoma border.
Another example of a collaborative effort is the Alpha Particle Microbeam project (right) initiated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 1989. The microbeam, which allows basic mechanistic studies at the individual cell level, has been used in research supported by NIH and NASA as well as DOE. The single-particle irradiation technique was first developed at PNNL but has since spread to other laboratories, including Texas A&M University, Columbia University, and the Gray Laboratory in London, England. (citation)
(Links removed as they become unavailable.)
One of the most dramatic changes in dissemination of scientific information has been the prolific use of the World Wide Web. In only 3 years, the Web not only has gained a wider acceptance as a medium among the general public, but it has become a common format for scientific discourse as well.
Listed in the column on the right are some examples of the OBER-funded Web sites that function as data centers, online journals, and electronic newsletters. The Web's wide variety of formats can be used to tailor information for better communication.
Other strengths of communicating science on the Web include:
Widespread distribution of scientific information has opened up unprecedented direct avenues of communication between the scientific community and the interested public. Through the Web, the public can witness more readily the evolution of scientific research.
An exciting aspect of communicating research results on the Web is that this is the first generation of Web technology. Further innovative applications are on the horizon, and BER's accomplishments will continue to be shared among scientists and the public using this dynamic medium.
Although journal publication is at the core of communicating results from one scientist to another, this transfer of information manifests itself in other ways. Although the impact of some journals is measured by their number of citations (see Journal Citations), sometimes important articles can have even more impact when they are selected for the cover of prestigious journals such as Physics World or Science.
Argonne National Laboratory's Patricia Dehmer's article on hydrogen made the cover of the July 1995 issue of Physics World (citation).
Dehmer is currently the director of the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Magazine cover for Physics World courtesy of Physics World U.K.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Steven Lindberg's article, "Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Major Ions in a Forest," was the cover article for the January 1986 issue of Science magazine (citation).
Lindberg's article went on to become one of the most widely cited papers on ecology and environmental sciences. Magazine cover courtesy of Science and ORNL.
Journal articles about radiotracers used in PETscans appeared in the literature as early as 1977 and later in magazines with broader appeal such as Chemical & Engineering News. Recently, information about how PET scans work has been published more frequently in the national media.
Cover courtesy of the American Chemical Society and reproduced with permission from Chemical & Engineering News, November 9, 1981 59(45). Copyright 1981 American Chemical Society. Photo reproduced with permission from BNL.
Another example is an article on ORNL's Michelle Buchanan's research on how the oil in a child's fingerprints is more volatile than an adult's. The article first appeared in Analytical Chemistry in July 1995. Eighteen months later after a slight revision, it appeared on the Discovery Channel Canada's Web site.
Courtesy of the American Chemical Society and reproduced with permission from Analytical Chemistry, July 1, 1995, 69(45). Copyright 1995 American Chemical Society.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international 13-year effort, 1990 to 2003. Primary goals were to discover the complete set of human genes and make them accessible for further biological study, and determine the complete sequence of DNA bases in the human genome. See Timeline for more HGP history.