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Human Genome News Archive Edition

Human Genome News, November 1992; 4(4)

Access to Genbank

E-mail Servers

The Retrieve e-mail server accepts single or multiple text strings (e.g., locus names, accession numbers, keywords, author names) as queries, runs an IRX search against a single specified database, and returns the matching full records as a mail message. The BLAST e-mail server accepts either a nucleic acid or protein query sequence in FASTA format, runs the search against a single specified database or NCBI's combined nonredundant database; results are returned in an e-mail message.

An NCBI phone number or special account is not needed to use the system, only the ability to send an electronic mail message to NCBI. The query structure for mail messages is nearly identical to the IG server, but NCBI documentation should first be obtained by sending the one-word message (help) to the addresses below.

  • (Retrieve server).
  • (BLAST server).

Anonymous FTP

NCBI-GenBank is also distributed over the Internet through the FTP program from

  • or

The full release in flat file format is available as compressed files in the directory ncbi-genbank. A cumulative update file is contained in the subdirectory daily and a noncumulative file in the subdirectory daily-nc.

CD-ROM Distribution

NCBI CD-ROMS are available through annual subscriptions that include a full release every 2 months. The following titles may be ordered through the Government Printing Office (202/783-3238, Fax: /512-2233) or from the Superintendent of Documents; P.O. Box 371954; Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954:

  • NCBI-GenBank incorporates all cumulative GenBank DNA data and is intended for users who have been receiving the flat file format directly from IG in the past. No software is included. Users should contact the producer of their commercial software to confirm compatibility. ($47 per year.)
  • Entrez: Sequences integrates nucleotide sequences, protein sequences, and journal abstracts from GenBank, EMBL, SWISS-PROT, DDBJ, and PIR linked to MEDLINE citations, with text retrieval software for Macintosh and PC-compatible systems. For information on compatibility with commercial software packages, contact software producers. ($57 per year.)
  • NCBI-Sequences is the integrated sequence data set from the Entrez: Sequences CD-ROM in the ASN.1 standard data description format. This is a data distribution disk containing the database only and is intended primarily for software developers. No software is included. ($47 per year.)

A CD-ROM with sequence data organized for similarity searching by FASTA is planned for early 1993. For further information on CD-ROMs, contact NCBI at NLM NCBI; Bldg. 38A, Room 8N-803; Bethesda, MD 20894 (301/496-2475, Fax: 301/480-9241, Internet:

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The electronic form of the newsletter may be cited in the following style:
Human Genome Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Human Genome News (v4n4).

Human Genome Project 1990–2003

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international 13-year effort, 1990 to 2003. Primary goals were to discover the complete set of human genes and make them accessible for further biological study, and determine the complete sequence of DNA bases in the human genome. See Timeline for more HGP history.

Human Genome News

Published from 1989 until 2002, this newsletter facilitated HGP communication, helped prevent duplication of research effort, and informed persons interested in genome research.